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Work through the following 30 examples and, says Guthrie Govan, the ideas contained here will improve your speed, fluency and overall playing skill — regardless of the style you play. Yo Ho Ho! In the first lesson of his new indie rock tutorial column, Jon Bishop has a look at the style of those cheeky chartbusters, the fabulous Arctic Monkeys. After a long journey around Eastern Europe in search of great guitar sounds, Tolis Zavaliaris returns to the Balkans for Serbian surprise.
If our recent Beat it transcription whetted your appetite Shaun Baxter is here to help, with the first in a two-part series devoted to tapping techniques. Classic singer-songwriter James Taylor embellishes his acoustic chord progressions and songs with tasteful ornamentations. Stuart Ryan shows us how he does it. Can you pass the Sidewinder challenge? Rocking with the King.
Chirping Crickets. Time To Roll! Guthrie Govan is your musical guide. In his second tasty chords column, Justin Sandercoe takes a close look at basic extended chords, while still using the principles of the CAGED system. In his ongoing search for the darkest rck tones Martin Goulding tunes down to Drop C and prepares to slay us with the gargantuan riffs of Killswitch Engage. In his continuing journey through the modes of melodic minor, this month Pete Callard clambers up the foothills of mode 5, or as the locals call it, Mixolydian b6.
Flex those fingers! Dario Cortese is your Ford escort! This month Alex shows how he solos over a II V I chord sequence in C — are you ready to play along with our star tutor? Get picking! But will he get caught? You WILL obey his command! Dare to face him? With John Wheatcroft. Is your blues rhythm playing lacking something?
Practise or do a hundred press-ups. You will obey! Join him for the victory. From beginner to advanced. From doddle to darned difficult. From Easy to Eek! Learn how to play like sweep picker extraordinaire Frank Gambale. Gianluca Corona shows you how. From easypeasy to cor blimey! Play this fab track in you band — with a great extra hot country solo tabbed!
Check this out! Legato speed feature — We all want to sound quicker, smoother and faster guitarists and this great lesson will do us that. Another great track for the band to play! Perfect for nylon or even steel-string guitar. A brilliant one for the repertoire! Get ready for a roast! Two easy, two a bit trickier and two…gulp! Chuck Berry wrote it and Buddy rocked with it. Get your fingers wrapped around this and your friends and family will be amazed!
Follow his examples and create more meaningful lead breaks now! Do your bending and vibrato chops pass muster? A bend and vibrato tour de force it will test your new-found chops! Godin offers another glimpse at his amazing style. This month: economy and hybrid picking. Look no further! Classic guitarist. Classic track. Classic riff. Classic solo.
Classic transcription! Learn this fret-melting rock and roll gem with Phil Capone as your guide. Wheaty will sort you out! This time: negotiating a chord sequence. Email him your questions. Stu has the answers — for trios and more! Learn this slice of bad-boy rock in the company of Steve Allsworth.
Surely one of the greatest pop-rock tracks ever recorded. Phil Capone guides you through rhythm, guitar solo and even the sax riff. Paul Bielatowicz transcribes one of his toughest pieces yet. So flex those fingers, warm up the muscles and prepare to shred! Our much praised First Lady of Guitar, Bridget Mermikides arranges and transcribes another glorious solo piece for you to play. Ladies and gentlemen… Jan Akkerman and Focus! This time: targetting great notes.
Steve Lukather Pt. How about a brilliant slide guitar masterclass? Or Yesterday by The Beatles? Roll on August! We know we do! Let Jon Bishop turn you into a bottleneck beast! We even tab the piano intro! Another great Bridget transcription of a classic piece of music. This Ludwig van Beethoven tune is ideal for transposing to guitar, too.
This time: playing through changes. This fantastic young acoustic guitarist shows us some of his amazing techniques! Nail this evocative style. Bag some new licks! Steve Allsworth is your guide. Are you mad fer it? Bridget Mermikides transcribes a beautiful piece from a Romantic master. Lull your kiddies or sweetheart in high style!
Paul Bielatowicz lays down the gauntlet with another monster piece. This one, from a Polish violin virtuoso, will test your skills! This brilliant young acoustic guitarist shows us more of his stunning techniques! Another superb Bridget Mermikides arrangement and transcription of a true classic. Play Bach on nylon-string acoustic! JS welcomes you to another action packed, fun filled and full to the brim techniques section! Six more great licks in easy, intermediate and advanced levels from Scott McGill.
Learn it note for note then use some of your new licks to make it your own! Bridget Mermikides arranges and transcribes this moody piece all about goblins, gnomes and trolls! Joe Satriani Pt. Wanna learn some fabulous new chords? Jim Clark has come up with a special selection to really spice up your music. Bridget Mermikides arranges and transcribes this wonderful piece that will remind you of the Dudley Moore and Bo Derek film Paul Bielatowicz dares you to play this baroque masterpiece on shred guitar!
Eddie Van Halen eat your heart out! Gibson ESs at the ready! Satch continues his exclusive video masterclass by showing you his unique legato style! Knowing the right modes will expand your vocabulary, range and knowledge. Let John Wheatcroft guide you through our Top Bridget tabs another beauty! Bert Jansch — Special Tribute Trstan Seume pays homage to a true legend of the quitar, a man who awoke the spirit of folk and acoustic music in generations of players.
Bert Jansch: sadly missed acoustic legend whose music thankfully lives on. Pete Callard continues his exploration of solo guitar — this month his topic is endings. Philip Sayce Pt. Musical tips, gear tips, tone tips and star tips to make you a more rounded musician. Is this the blues-rock classic of blues-rock classics? We think it might be! Steve Allsworth tabs every lick and bend of this superb track. Piano Concerto 21 Andante.
Learn it and impress your friends! Bach — Toccata and Fugue. Another impressive piece that Paul Bielatowicz has tabbed for you — go and see him with Carl Palmer and he plays it live in his solo spot! Six more great licks in easy, intermediate and advanced levels from Scott McGill — from Mick Ronson to bebop saxophonist John Coltrane!
Shaun Baxter begins a new series showing us creative ways to solo over specific chord types — this month we begin with major 7ths. Pete Callard continues his exploration of solo guitar — this month he shows us more enlightening ways to end a performance. Grab that 6-string and have some fun.
You too can sound like a Nokia mobile phone with this superb classical transcription by Bridget Mermikides! Paul Bielatowicz shreds his way through an exceptional piece by Frederic Chopin. A video primer. Wanna tap like Michael Hedges or Eric Roche? Stuart Ryan explains all!
An introduction. Bridget Mermikides shows you how to play in one of the most respected acoustic styles. Captain Sidwell steers the good ship GT away from Troubled Waters and towards altogether calmer seas. Licks ahoy! Are you tired of those boring old triads? Eric Sardinas Part 1. Eric demonstrates his extraordinary style of hot resonator blues slide. Be prepared to rock! Kansas — Carry On Wayward Son. Steve Allsworth tabs out this Kansas classic.
Bridget arranges this lovely piece for solo guitar. We trust your fingers are warm, your frets lubed and your mind clear! John Wheatcroft meets the hottest blues ticket in town — the irrepressible Joe Bonamassa! Shaun Baxter with more major soloing. This month he examine major chord arpeggios. Eric Sardinas Pt. More from this amazing resonator slide player!
Allen Hinds Pt. Jon Bishop went to great lengths to get his Johnny Marr parts dead right. With acoustic and electric both tabbed, this is the ultimate! Paul Bielatowicz has a tapping fest to end all tapping fests this month. Manuel Ahlqvist shows how players like Robben Ford sweeten up their playing by use of the Dorian pentatonic scale. Stuart rounds off his bluegrass series with Blackberry Blossom.
Allen Hinds Part 2. Jon Bishop looks at four incredible guitarists who changed the course of musical history! Paul Bielatowicz takes a break from classical shredding to come up with the ultimate transcription of a Thin Lizzy rocking classic! Six fabulous licks in easy, intermediate and advanced levels from Scott McGill. Allen Hinds Part 3. Tristan Seume offers a superb look at the picking styles any modern guitarist needs in their arsenal — great music pieces to learn too!
Shaun Baxter has even more ways to help us become more creative guitarists — this one feature is worth the cover price alone! Andy Saphir with a cool new series showing all those fabulous fingertwisting Nashville licks. Buddy Whittington Part 1. Includes Big Bill verse too! Charlie Griffiths shows you how to use it to play rapid lines. Bridget Mermikides arranges for guitar and transcribes a wonderful piece by the Polish piano virtuoso composer Frederic Chopin.
He makes a jolly good cup of tea as well if only — Ed! Shaun Baxter has many ways of soloing over the maj7 chord. Here are some more! Andy Saphir introduces a man who some say was the greatest guitarist ever — Danny Gatton. Stuart Ryan introduces the wonderful world of Nashville tuning, as used by Dave Gilmour, The Rolling Stones and acoustic session players too.
This issue Charlie Griffiths savours the jazzy vibe of the Dorian mode. Buddy Whittington part 2. The wonderful Texan blues guitarist underlines our western swing feature with some fab ideas! Paul Bielatowicz excels himself with perhaps his most brilliant shredaptation yet. You may want to fully warm up before you attempt it! Trainer Sidwell introduces our brimming lessons section. Twice more round that two-octave sweep-picked arpeggio!
Six diverse licks in easy, intermediate and advanced flavours from Scott McGill. Buddy Whittington Part 3. Our Texan friend and super blues guitarist winds up his three-parter with more great ideas. All the rhythm and lead licks fully tabbed by Steve Allsworth. Fear not! This feature is for everyone, at every level, and will show you why so many great players favour the pick and fingers approach.
Antonio Vivaldi — Spring. He begins with the evocative Spring. This month, Shenandoah. Alessandro Puddu. Fancy learning the slap guitar style of Tosin Abasi and Regi Wooten? Then watch this! New tab, new recording by Neville Marten. Jamie Humphries transcribes one of the best rock instrumentals ever, by the brilliant Focus!
Bridget Mermikides arranges yet another incredible piece for solo classical guitar. Commander Sidwell orders you to practise like an Olympic athlete. Shaun Baxter continues his exploration of sweep picked arpeggios — in bluesy style. Andy Saphir dons his cowboy hat and Fender Tele to tackle the style of awesome country legend Brad Paisley. Pete Callard in respectful homage to a true master of jazz guitar, Johnny Smith.
Charlie Griffiths ushers in a brand new Rockschool column for GT. Bryan Baker. Charl Coetzee introduces the first in a three-part masterclass with a new guitar genius! Jon Bishop transcribes a classic Cream track with a great Clapton solo for you to play. Bossa, rumba and more! Jon Bishop explores the infectious rhythms, harmonies and melodies of Latin America.
Learn this beautiful romantic classical piece by the troubled genius Robert Schumann. Special Agent Sidwell details your mission for this month. Shaun Baxter unleashes fast pentatonic runs with hammer-ons and pulloffs. Andy Saphir on the massively talented and awesomely versatile Johnny Hiland. Charlie Griffiths continues his essential A-Z of music theory. Charl Coetzee introduces the second in a three-part masterclass with a new guitar genius!
Yes, you really can do it. Jon Bishop transcribes an accessible jazz-rock classic that will teach you cool chords, great rhythms and perfect lead note choices. Between myriad projects Guthrie found the time to tab out, record and describe one of his most popular tracks from the CD Erotic Cakes.
Lessons Introduction. Six diverse licks in easy, intermediate and advanced flavours from Terry Lewis. Andy Saphir examines a vital technique of modern country players; the double-stop. Charlie Griffiths continues his A-Z of music theory. Exclusive video with Oz Noy! Learn how you can use everything from the minor pentatonic to the altered scale to get the very most out of the blues. Prelude In E Minor. Here he plays ten choruses of the piece: the final four bars of each chorus are essentially the same, providing the listener with milestones to detect when one chorus is over and a new one begins; the first eight bars are where Lewis introduces, in each chorus, an array of infectious figures and powerful cross-rhythms.
Observers recall that Lewis could improvise on this tune for thirty minutes, his fingers cascading over the keys, relentlessly rolling out the rhythms, dazzling everyone within earshot. Frank Driggs Collection est work. The discs were intended largely for the African American jukebox market. Wilson arranged the beginnings, endings, and order of solos. I never led her. I never would play the melody along with them. Holiday ranks, with Louis Armstrong, as one of the greatest jazz singers. She did it by moving His innovations made him one of the most influential jazz musicians between Louis Armstrong of the s and Charlie Parker of the s.
The elegant pianist Teddy Wilson introduces the song, Young takes the three eight-bar A sections, with trumpeter Buck Clayton taking the B section or bridge. Holiday recomposes the melody of the A section, flattening out parts of it.
In the bridge, she largely sings the original melody but makes the rhythms and phrasing her own. For her, such rhythmic conventions as eighth notes, quarter notes, and bar lines were merely guideposts, not fences. Holiday leans on the beat, then catches up, demonstrating her impeccable sense of rhythm.
She makes a then-familiar hit song into something personal and fresh. Most remarkable, perhaps, was that its style was consistent, even while the band played a wide variety of dance repertoire. Precision and discipline were certainly second nature to this band, made up of a new breed of well-trained, college-educated musicians. Buffalo, NY, Frank Driggs Collection 55 Lunceford had returned as assistant professor of music , and they collectively ran the band, originally known as the Chickasaw Syncopators, out of Buffalo.
In , when Lunceford assumed sole control over the band, he moved them to New York and made Sy Oliver who had taught at Ohio State its principal arranger. The band members were all smiles in their beautiful tuxedos, and they learned to sing, dance, and do coordinated instrument flips. Fortunately, Lunceford was also dedicated to producing precision recordings for their own sake in a way other band directors were not, enabling us to hear these numbers today.
The second chorus builds on the first, but the third chorus features the trombone section, with a Willie Smith alto solo over the second half. The fourth chorus begins with screaming trumpets but is soon showing off the delicacy of the saxophone section.
For most big bands, the variety came from a sequence of different solos, but here the solos make up only one and a half of the six choruses, a small proportion of the arrangement. Inventing an array of new textures presented both a challenge and an opportunity for arranger Oliver; the complementary skills of arranger and perfectly tuned ensemble were an ideal match.
If you listen for a steady strumming on every beat, you will also hear the guitar of Freddie Green. After the piano opening, the solo moves to Herschel Evans on tenor saxophone with the trumpets playing a repetitive figure a riff in the background. Next Lester Young tenor saxophone floats over a riff from muted trumpets, followed by a Buck Clayton trumpet solo over a sax riff. The last section, where each of the three horn sections saxophones, trombones, and trumpets plays complementary repeating riffs, is the first part without improved solos.
This three-minute recording, however, barely captures the energy of the band. Basie won. Savoy Ballroom, New York City, He had a hunchback from tuberculosis of the spine and died from this condition at the age of thirty. Since he was unable to read music, he had to memorize the arrangements, and he needed special pedals, cymbal stands, and a raised platform so that he could see the band. But there was nothing small about his drumming.
Mostly, though, the band dominated because of the swing drumming of Webb. Webb set a new standard for swing and for playing the drums. Other drummers played fast, but Webb added a new clarity and balance. This tonal control gave Webb the ability to play dynamics; combined with his flawless timing, he could make the band swing even while playing softly. Krupa was a great admirer of Webb and never forgot the night May 11, when Webb defeated Goodman at the Savoy.
Throughout, the drums pulse with energy yet remain delicate. Webb maintains the fire while still varying the texture and the rhythmic ideas. And yet all the elements of his pioneering jazz guitar style were mature and on show in his joyous, voluptuous solo.
Django was a Gypsy who grew up in a wooden caravan. At age eight, he learned violin from his father, himself an itinerant bandleader. Django was a professional musician by age fourteen, playing virtuoso banjo in the accordion dance halls of the Paris underworld, the bals musettes. At eighteen, however, he was horribly burned when his caravan caught fire one night.
The left side of his body was scorched, leaving his fretting hand nearly paralyzed. So Django taught himself to play again using only his index and middle finger —plus, at times, his thumb—to fret the fleet runs for which he was soon famous. In this one recording, Django flaunted his wealth of licks and tricks.
He played solo lines over the chord changes, syncopating his phrasing. His flurries of arpeggios ran through the harmonic minor scale, which was most often used in Gypsy flamenco and added a dark underside to his voice. Django then interspersed deft chord-melody phrases amongst his single-note lines. Casanova, Paris, At this point Grappelli jumped in, playing rapturous violin alive with swing. It was a bravura performance, so hot that even their bandmates cheered on the master take when the band finished the song.
And due to inspiring solos such as this one, Django became one of the few jazz greats who was not American. He inspired a whole genre of jazz—Gypsy jazz—alive and well today in clubs throughout the world. Cleveland, OH, Frank Driggs Collection 62 Pianist, composer, and arranger Mary Lou Williams born Mary Elfrieda Scruggs was fond of saying that, while other pianists had lived through all the eras of jazz, she was the only performer who had played through them all.
On its face, the assertion is grandiose. However, her claim could be defended in one sense: Williams had fully embraced every stylistic development that came along—ragtime, blues, swing, bop, and most of the musical movements that followed. Many jazz musicians pay nodding acquaintance to stylistic developments, or may even take them on in force, but few completely shed their musical roots.
In contrast, Mary Lou Williams composed and played as if her roots lay in every new style; as Sally Placksin expressed it, Williams never traded on nostalgia. Williams even concertized in with free-form pianist Cecil Taylor. Though the encounter was something of a misfire, few other than Williams would have conceived of such a pairing.
Williams was barely into her midteens when she left home to play in black vaudeville. Many musicians scoffed at the sight of Williams at the piano until they heard her play, both hands fully engaged and generating plenty of volume. Similarly impressed, Kapp insisted that she record with the band. Williams would revisit some of her early compositions over the years and suit them to the present day.
Her original conception, recorded by the Kirk band in , presents its angular melody and earthy harmonies as a stomp tune with an aggressive beat and bottomy sound. Williams took herself, and her music, very seriously. She periodically withdrew from music after leaving Kirk in In the s, she fervently embraced Roman Catholicism and, for the rest of her days, strove to strike a balance between her faith, her music, and her life. That struggle is manifest in some of her later and less accessible music.
But the sheer reach of her compositions created over five decades always draws us back to discover, and to hear, what we missed before. Person behind Cole is unidentified. Frank Driggs Collection 64 Sometimes all-star sessions turn out to be less than the sum of their illustrious parts, but in the case of this Hampton-led track the music fulfills the promise of its stellar cast.
The only drawback is the inexplicably short duration of the performance—well below the three-minute standard for the 78 rpm era. Lionel Hampton had been leading all-star studio gatherings for Victor since , drawing upon the talents of whatever big bands happened to be in town at the time. Few could rival this particular cast, however, which, among other delights, brings together three of the four leading tenor saxophonists of the Swing Era only Lester Young is missing.
Although only thirty-four at the time, Hawkins brought gravitas to any musical setting. As if this were not enough reed power, alto saxophonist Benny Carter, who along with Johnny Hodges was the preeminent Swing Era soloist on his instrument, lends his always elegant touch. This recording, of course, contains the original bridge. Carter supplied a skeletal arrangement that gives the performance cohesiveness. Hampton, whose monumental talent and boundless energy could sometimes lead to musical excess, responds particularly well to this framework with a brilliant bridge in the first chorus which Carter finishes in typically suave fashion and an equally focused solo in the second chorus.
Hawkins takes a four-bar break and the first half of the third chorus; his no-nonsense and aggressive approach may be sending a message to his two tenor rivals. Despite the nonpareil saxophone section and Hampton himself, the real star of this performance is the rhythm section.
Although not a flashy soloist, pianist Clyde Hart had an advanced harmonic sense that made him a favorite of his fellow musicians. Together they form an organic unit that defines the notion of collective swing. For that reason it has mostly been the province of jazz instrumentalists.
Frank Driggs Collection very unusual, having tripped up many an aspiring musician, and it takes considerable skill to bring it off well. It was during his tenure with the Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra from to that Hawkins had helped establish the tenor saxophone as a recognized instrument for jazz expression. By the time of this recording, his style had matured and featured an emphatic attack, rhythmic flexibility, a full-bodied vibrato, a rich tone, and emotional conviction.
His main trademark lay in his exploration of the outlines of chords for his solos rather than the standard practice of embellishing the melody. The accompaniment in the first chorus here is bare-bones, and, even when the band comes in on the second chorus, it stays in the background. The recording belongs to Hawkins.
After a four-bar introduction by pianist Gene Rodgers, Hawkins begins by stating the original melody, paraphrasing it, and then making it his own pure invention. Through the course of sixty-four bars two slow choruses , Hawkins takes us on a dramatic, thrilling journey through musical valleys, plains, and a mountaintop, methodically building—with higher notes, louder volume, a more strident tone, greater rhythmic intensity—to the climax.
It is a brilliantly shaped solo; Hawkins compared its story arc not to mountain climbing but rather to a lovemaking session. Hawkins based his solo almost entirely on the underlying harmonies of the piece, making new melodies from the chords of the old. This approach was a major innovation that, along with his use of chromaticism, would have enormous impact on the future of jazz. Second row: Artie Bernstein, Red Ballard. Fall A virtuoso of the first order and an innovator on his instrument, Goodman marshaled all of his myriad talents when he became a full-time bandleader in Goodman knew these pieces intimately, and his solos were at times so intricately woven in and out of the rolling backgrounds that they seem to have been preconceived.
From firsthand experience sitting in the Goodman saxophone section, though, I can report that he could spontaneously spin those solos out one after another, and, in that effort, he created what might have been his most enduring legacy. A close listen to his first bridge on this recording is as good an example as any for this particular talent of his. The nexus of improvisation with compositional elements was second nature to musicians of the Big-Band Era, and for musicians such as Goodman, Lester Young, Cootie Williams, Ben Webster, and Jack Teagarden, to name just a few, it resulted in some of their most inspired work.
Every one of his recordings had at least one magic moment in them, and that is why, like the contemporary work of Fats Waller and Louis Armstrong, they wear so well so many decades later. His hiring of black musicians enabled Goodman to inspire, and be inspired by, many of the most brilliant players of the era. On this recording, guitarist Charlie Christian who had just joined the band a couple of months earlier plays a perfectly conceived solo that introduces his streamlined swing and evenly swinging phrasing to a larger audience than the small-group recordings on which he was mostly featured.
The trumpet solo reveals Ziggy Elman at his restrained best, followed by a brief Goodman reprise and the riffs out. This was an abbreviated version of the Henderson arrangement, the full one existing on contemporary airchecks. Parts of it seem to have circulated in aural tradition; pianist Art Tatum, Tatum was blind in one eye and almost blind in the other, yet despite his handicap he built an ear- and eye-popping technique: his right hand could leap to the top of the keyboard and hit a high note with unerring accuracy, and at blistering speed.
He was at his best playing in small clubs generally as a solo artist; he perfected a full, orchestral style that used almost the entire range of his instrument to build dramatic contrasts. His stellar musicianship and technical virtuosity in both hands made him one of the greatest masters of the piano in any genre of music.
By the time he made this recording in , he had not only refined his arrangement but also increased the tempo to an astonishing half notes per minute. The performance is so breakneck that the listener almost holds his breath, half in dread, to see if the two hands collide in a train wreck, or if the train goes completely off the track.
Here his out-of-tempo, impressionistic introduction contrasts sharply with the main body of the piece. Not only did Tatum inspire other pianists and set pianistic benchmarks that have never been equaled, but his harmonic imagination influenced the bebop music that would soon develop. He had hired a twenty-one-year-old bassist, Jimmie Blanton, whose technique and outsize tone would revolutionize jazz bass playing, and Ben Webster, a tenor saxophonist whose style was drenched in the blues.
The two sparked the band. Billy Strayhorn would soon contribute in major ways to compositions and orchestrations. Back: Sonny Greer, drums. Oriental Theater, Chicago, November Frank Driggs Collection 69 control and choice of what material he would record. When swing music and dancing had become a national obsession in the late s, Ellington stood above the pack, continuing to go his own musical way. He was less interested in establishing a good beat for dancing than in exploring his musical imagination.
He treated the form as a prism, now reflecting one color or mood, now another. The recording consists of an eight-bar introduction, seven blues choruses, a repeat of the introduction, and a four-bar coda. Ellington takes the spotlight in the fourth chorus, jabbing out dissonant harmonies at the piano. The wailing band takes the fifth chorus, and in the sixth, Blanton and the band engage in call-and-response.
The seventh and final chorus increases the harmonic density and dynamic intensity. It comes from , several years later than most other similarly themed songs, which places it closer to the World War II era than the Depression. Hotel Sherman, Chicago, Recording studio, NY, May 25, l Since Henderson himself was unavailable, no piano was used although Carter played accompaniment on one of the titles.
The three horn players—Carter, Hawkins, and Roy Eldridge—were frequent associates and lifelong friends, and their musical crossinfluences were profound and complex. Furthermore, these recordings were issued on twelve-inch 78 rpm discs, whose longer playing time four minutes plus allowed for a relatively extended performance as compared with the typical ten inch, three-minute studio recording of the period. A momentary pause at the beginning of the second chorus suggests some confusion about who would follow, but Hawkins quickly leaps into the fray with a typically hard-swinging solo and simply devours the changes.
Let a real man play! Eldridge continues to stoke the flames for two choruses full of urgency and relentless swing. Beginning with the last eight bars of his first chorus, however, there is a dramatic shift: Carter introduces a descending line which foreshadows a similar but even more startling variation leading into the bridge of the second chorus.
He finishes the chorus in more conventional fashion before the other horns join in for the free-for-all last chorus. String section not identified. Hollywood Palladium, Its dreamy melody sounds as if it were an improvisation plucked from the air and captured on paper.
The question was: who would make the definitive swing-band interpretation? Tommy Dorsey and Benny Goodman both recorded it in April In fact, their versions were released on opposite sides of the same 78 rpm disc, possibly the only such back-to-back coupling.
Then, in , Lennie Hayton made a masterly arrangement for Artie Shaw. Shaw, a perfectionist, virtuoso clarinetist, and mercurial bandleader, led one of the most popular big bands of the Swing Era, producing dozens of recordings in the late s and early s.
Augmenting the band with a nine-piece string section, Shaw assembled his men to record what turned out to be a masterpiece. A highlight of the recording is the brief but extraordinarily conceived and executed trombone solo of Jack Jenney. This is a performance whose luminescence does not dim even after repeated listening. This quality could have accounted for its success with the public: it was reportedly a million-seller for Shaw, his sixth.
But it was his playing, sometimes loud and overbearing but always swinging, that won him the respect of his fellow drummers, many of whom imitated the setup of his kit which included two tunable tom-toms and emulated his flamboyant solos. In Krupa left Goodman to start a popular big band of his own. A phenomenally vital soloist who was influenced in equal measure by Louis Armstrong and Coleman Hawkins, Eldridge played with a saxophone-like technical fluidity rare among jazz trumpeters of his generation, and his innovative harmonic language made him a key figure in the transition from swing to bebop.
The comic spoken interludes and cheeringcrowd effects document a vaudeville-flavored stage-show routine of a kind that was still common at the time, though it was highly unusual for a black man and a white woman to perform such a routine together in In his autobiography, To Be or Not His contribution and mine just happened to go together, like putting salt on rice.
Before I met Charlie Parker my style had already developed, but he was a great influence on my whole musical life. He was always going the same direction as me when he was way out there in Kansas City and had never heard of me. Charlie Parker definitely set the standard for phrasing our music, the enunciation of notes.
Parker takes the first of three one-chorus solos, improvising a brilliant display of long, rhythmically complex phrases crossing over bar lines and punctuated with vocal-like articulations. The entire ensemble plays the recapitulation with the same precision as in the beginning, ending the performance with an unresolved cadence. This was in certain aspects challenging because, although James Moody, tenor sax; Chano Pozo, there were Afro-based similarities between the rumba conga; Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet.
The basic riff, an AfroCuban-derived rhythmic ostinato accented by bass, saxophones, trombones, and the trumpet section, was composed by Pozo, with Gillespie transcribing the notes into a sketch and composing the bridge section incorporating a jazz swing feel. He assigned Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet, leader, standing. Orpheum Theater, Los Angeles, Fall l He sang the bass part which introduced the tune, sang the saxophone parts and then lashed out with his right hand and he stomped his foot to indicate the dynamic sounds of trumpets.
I told him it needed a bridge. It was just another good recording. Now everywhere I played people want to hear it. Was it a popular tune? In the documentary film on Afro-Cuban music, Roots of Rhythm , Gillespie reminisces in detail on the manner in which he and Pozo co-composed the piece.
She would use this name for the rest of her life. In she would take a three-year hiatus from jazz, during which she converted to Roman Catholicism. The last twenty-plus years of her life would be devoted to jazz education, the rehabilitation of addicted jazz musicians, and expressing her faith through her jazz compositions. The work initially consisted of written movements that were showcased weekly on her radio show in But after the first three weeks, Williams began improvising the works during the broadcast.
Asch released the sides later that year as Signs of the Zodiac. In Folkways Records reissued the suite on LP, and recently jazz pianist Geri Allen recorded her own interpretation of the suite, called Zodiac Suite: Revisited Her vamping and fluid playing are enhanced by harmonic and melodic support in the strings at different intervals.
While Williams never attempted to compose in the idiom of the jazz suite again, the innovative compositional style reflected here was later translated into the jazz masses she produced during the s and s. S Frank Driggs Collection a quartet was cut just three months before this one, in October In the years between his debut and second sessions, the bebop jazz revolution had taken place. The young man who recorded on the West Coast in is more or less a swing player in the mold of Lester Young, but by Dexter, along with the prevailing fashion in jazz, had changed completely.
He was named as an early influence by Charlie Parker, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane, Stan Getz, and literally hundreds of other musicians—and not only saxophonists. He was not, as one might assume, a singer who played piano but was a well-established, innovative, and much-imitated pianist before he ever sang on record. It presents Cole functioning as both a piano soloist and a sterling rhythm section. Among pre-bop musicians, a bass was not considered essential as long as one had a pianist with a strong left hand.
And it offers Rich providing a highly musical and interactive accompaniment. Rich enters alone, then Cole plays the A sections over a repeated bass note pattern, with Young playing only on the bridge. Cole gets a chorus, dropping the stride for his own sparkling swing style.
The next two choruses are not so much a drum solo as a dialog between all three instruments. By the time Young returns for two more choruses, the energy and joy are palpable, with some more vocal approvals from Rich. There is no better illustration of the social, interactive nature of this music than this effervescent recording.
Like his friend Thelonious Monk, Powell had contributed to many of the harmonic innovations that would define the bebop style of the mids; unlike Monk, though, Powell had a classically trained technique. At this early stage in his career he could already match the speed and accuracy of bebop horn players. However, Powell was beginning to suffer from acute mental health problems. Following what is thought to have been a racially motivated beating around the head by the police in early , Powell was institutionalized for the first time.
From this point onwards, his life would be dogged by breakdowns and periods in mental hospitals. With an eight-bar introduction and a similarlength coda, there are six full choruses of the piece. In the first, the theme is stated in a Tatum-esque manner, and then Powell produces three flawless choruses of highspeed invention, demonstrating his formidable powers as a bebop improviser. In a final, tragic twist, these sides were recorded by a small firm that went out of business before they were issued.
But Parker pushed for extremes in all phases of his life and music, and even his slow, lyrical performances find him probing and pushing the music in new directions. During the opening chorus, Bird makes only one brief allusion to the written melody; for the rest, he engages in a brilliant thematic improvisation.
Yet Parker is soon in full flight, alternating short, lyrical passages with rapid-fire, bar-crossing excursions implying a tempo double that being played by the rhythm section. In time, this approach to playing ballads would become widely imitated, but in it was a very daring way of interpreting a popular standard.
Although his solo shows flashes of the stylist Davis would become, for the most part his cautious approach only serves to show, by comparison, how far ahead Parker was of most of his contemporaries in the mids. HCO But as its members went into World War II military service, Woody, its elected leader, bought up their shares, and the band evolved according to his tastes—modern, with a tilt toward Stravinsky, ardently shared by its new and younger players.
But this one was different. The evolution of saxophone playing had come far, with good tenor players, inspired by Lester Young, able to execute up into the registers of the alto. So Herman put together a section featuring three tenors and a baritone. He was a fantastic reader. When Stan came in, it was unbelievable for me as a writer. Anything I could write, Stan could play immediately.
But when Al Cohn not heard in this performance stood up to solo, all the musicians turned to listen. And Serge Chaloff was one of the finest of all baritone players, that small but doughty breed who mastered an instrument that in lesser hands was merely cumbersome.
The composition was written by Jimmy Giuffre. The source of the title seems to be lost to history; possibly it was a play on the title of the novel and movie The Four Feathers. Wherever it came from, it gave a name and identity to an incredible saxophone section and indeed a whole band, one of the finest to arise in the Big-Band Era.
BN Yet, as much as Monk contributed to the bebop revolution, he also charted a new course for modern music. As a composer, he was less interested in writing new melodies over popular chord progressions than in creating a whole new architecture for his music, one in which harmony and rhythm melded seamlessly with the melody.
He worked intermittently, and just four days before this recording session, he lost a job at the Royal Roost after he was arrested for possession of marijuana. He ended up serving a thirty-day jail term and losing his cabaret card a police-issued identity card mandatory for anyone working in establishments that serve alcohol for nearly a year. Thelonious also hired a decidedly non-bebop rhythm section in bassist John Simmons and drummer Shadow Wilson.
Simmons recorded with everyone, from Big Sid Catlett to Coleman Hawkins, and Wilson was a big-band drummer best known for his brilliant work with the Count Basie Orchestra. The choice of personnel for this modern quartet made up of Swing-Era veterans and modernists paid off.
The band cut six sides in eight takes, and virtually everything released from these sessions verged on the spectacular. Unlike most blues riffs, the melody is built on even eighth notes of ascending and descending parallel sixths—with Monk playing the bottom note and Jackson the top.
It begins like a slow-moving locomotive, but, once we are past the melody, the train takes off and swings so hard you might forget your destination. Monk soon fell back into obscurity; he hardly worked and did not return to the studio for a couple of years. In , he was arrested on false charges of heroin possession and lost his cabaret card for six years. They forced me to be an arranger, because nobody would play my tunes unless I would write them out.
On the frontline of this recording Navarro is joined by the tenor saxophonists Wardell Gray and Allen Eager. It reflects the restrictions imposed by the limits of the recording universe of the time—quite a contrast to what Dameron rather critically observed as an annoying tendency towards overblowing in succeeding years. Navarro, his apt nickname reflecting the attractive avoirdupois of his beautiful tone, steps up first following the succinct theme statement. Eager accepts the baton from Fats with aplomb, issuing a marvelous legato statement.
The two men, who had been boyhood friends, moved from Cuba to New York City, where Machito was soon singing with popular Latin groups, including Xavier Cugat, and starting to add bebop ideas to his own mostly Cuban ensemble. Wanting to introduce his friend Dizzy Gillespie into this band, he called in sick and suggested Gillespie as his replacement. Later, he would introduce Gillespie to Chano Pozo. He also moves the vamp up a key periodically when he wants another boost.
The pianist George Shearing is exceptional in several respects, but for two reasons in particular. Firstly he is British-born, and made his reputation in the international jazz world at a time when very few Europeans had done so. Secondly he is blind, which meant that building a career in a new country, the United States, was a particularly remarkable achievement.
After a long career, Shearing was knighted by the Queen of England in January for his services to jazz. Tristano produced only a handful of studio albums, and his influence was largely through his more famous students, whom he began to gather after moving to New York in Though blind, he finished a degree at the American Conservatory in Chicago in only three years.
Both would be models for later cool jazz, and they share a subdued basic pulse and an instrumentation and tone palette that suggest classical chamber music. It begins with a complete statement of the tune AAlBA followed by Konitz, Bauer, and Marsh solos sax, guitar, sax with a longer piano solo making up the middle of the work.
So while there are eight- , sixteen- , and thirty-two-bar phrase units AABA , Tristano has disguised them. Bill Evans and John Lewis were also influenced by this music. At a later session in , Tristano suggested that the band continue to play, but without drums or any preconceived melody, harmony, or rhythm. At the same time, Tristano withdrew from playing and opened the first jazz school. With his former students now as faculty, he was content to let this be his legacy.
Louis dentist and owned a ranch in Arkansas, where his son learned to ride horses? Having this background meant that the young Miles Davis III learned the trumpet from Elwood Buchanan, who played in the symphony and trained Davis to play with a clear, round tone rather than with the vibrato used by popular trumpeter Harry James.
It meant that his mother forced him to finish high school rather than letting him go on the road at seventeen, isolating him from the latest sounds for another year and perhaps allowing him a little more time to formulate his unique approach. It also meant that he went to the Juilliard School of Music in He soon dropped out, though, choosing instead to play and record with Charlie Parker.
In September, the band played for two weeks at the Royal Roost and two nights at the Clique Club, but Davis brought the band together again three times over the next two years to record a dozen new compositions for release as singles. The Birth of the Cool album with eleven of the twelve singles was released as a complete LP album only in The initial public impact, therefore, was limited, but many of the musicians, including Mulligan, Lewis, and Lee Konitz, went on to be major figures in the cool and West Coast styles.
As soloists, Davis, Mulligan, and Lewis all take a remarkably soft, melodic, and minimalist approach; there are entire measures of silence between phrases. The rhythm section is subdued, and the band plays softly and slowly throughout. All of this reflects what would become a new cool aesthetic, closer to the most understated classical chamber music than the frenetic speed and aggression of bebop.
And yet there are still traces of bebop. The music is modern; it is meant as art and not for dancing. While the melody is slow, it is still complicated and angular. Despite the attempts to blur the form and the avoidance of a string of AABA solos and the extension of the second chorus , the form still largely resembles three choruses of AABA. The first chorus is a statement of the melody. Davis gets the third AA for himself, and Lewis gets the final B before the band restates the theme in the final A: a modified but recognizable head arrangement.
This collaboration of white and black musicians, and perhaps white and black styles, angered some African Americans: to some it represented a bebop tamed for Middle America. CO Indeed, as demonstrated in the opening choruses of this twelve-bar blues, the rhythm section took on even more of its s sound when the guitarist Freddie Green rejoined them on a tour to Chicago.
Thus we have the instrumentation of the octet we hear on this recording. However, as was often the case with Davis, having done something revolutionary, he turned his back on it and explored new directions. Shorty Rogers born Milton Rajonsky , who had been a member of the trumpet section and a staff arranger in the big bands of both Woody Herman and Stan Kenton, was one of the major figures to pick up where Davis had left off.
A lot of their playing took place at the Lighthouse Club on Hermosa Beach, a forty-five-minute drive from downtown L. This club owed its musical policy to the ex-Kenton bassist Howard Rumsey, who oversaw bands that played virtually every night of the week with a marathon afternoon-to-late-night session on Sundays. Rogers recalled customers coming straight in from the beach, covered in sand, to perch on a barstool and listen to the music. This sunny informality also pervades the music.
COM 97 More importantly for Rogers and for his long-term colleague Jimmy Giuffre, their nightly work at the club coincided with their study of composition with Dr. Wesley LaViolette. They were in the fortunate position of being able to try out their compositional ideas on paper by day and then hear them being played the same night by the band. As a result, Rogers in particular became an even more prolific composer than he had been in his Kenton and Herman days, and was eventually lost to jazz for some decades as he wrote film and television scores for Hollywood.
This recording catches him straddling two musical styles but adeptly balanced between his growing assurance as a composer and his technical skill as a trumpeter. He dropped out of high school to provide a steady flow of danceable versions of pop songs for the Tommy Tucker big band as it toured the country.
He met Miles Davis and became one of the arrangers for the famous Birth of the Cool sessions. The club was so small that when the Red Norvo Trio of vibes, guitar, and bass began a run as the headliner, the owners decided the grand piano they had bought for Erroll Garner could go. While the group became famous for working without a piano, that was hardly their only innovation.
The baritone saxophone was not common as a solo instrument, and both Baker and Mulligan played with an unusual lightness and relaxed melodic invention. Even in this short piece, the texture varies constantly. At the bridge, the sax and horn play in unison, leaving lots of space, but the line finishes with the bass joining them in harmony.
Baker and Mulligan also had terrific rapport and improvised together: note the repeated background melody riff that Mulligan plays behind the Baker solo. Within months, the Gerry Mulligan Quartet was selling out at the Haig and making successful recordings. Sadly, it all ended just as quickly.
Both Baker and Mulligan were addicted to heroin, and the following summer Mulligan was arrested. By the time he got out of prison, he discovered that Baker had figured out how to turn his gentle singing and extraordinary hair into pop stardom, and Mulligan was left to re-form the quartet with Bob Brookmeyer.
Rustic Cabin, NJ, Frank Driggs Collection Beginning in , Stan Kenton led a series of innovative and often controversial jazz bands. Like Basie, Ellington and later, Art Blakey, Kenton was a great talent scout, and he filled his bands with gifted young players. As was the case with Ellington, what Kenton wrote depended largely on the figures in the band.
The edition of his band, heard here, featured trumpeters Maynard Ferguson and Conte Candoli, trombonist Frank Rosolino, and saxophonists Lee Konitz and Richie Kamuca—all of whom would become well known. Kenton loved to experiment, as indicated in the names he chose for his ensembles—Artistry in Rhythm Orchestra, Progressive Jazz Orchestra, Innovations in Modern Music Orchestra, and the Los Angeles Neophonic Orchestra —and his penchant for the new and unconventional sparked considerable controversy.
Frank Driggs Collection In the beginning, there was the bass drum. After playing with Dizzy, Bird, and Miles, Roach was asked if he would like to lead his own band in He invited Clifford Brown to co-lead the band with him. Brown was one of the most promising young talents in jazz and also a mathematician, chess player, and sober role model. There is also a counterline from the piano, and, instead of using an existing popular harmonic sequence, Brownie creates an original, twisting progression to go with his angular but highly structured bop melody.
His gift for improvised melody is even more awesome at the speed of this solo; his long bebop lines always sound relaxed and composed. The volume and bombs are reduced for a piano solo by Richie Powell brother of Bud , and Harold Land provides a chorus of Texas tenor with some funky backgrounds from Powell before we get a rare full chorus AABA of drum solo.
In no other band are the drummer and trumpet leaders so equally matched in technique, rhythmic precision, and melodic invention. After just over two years of recordings and performances that clearly indicated the presence of a major new force in jazz, Brown and Richie Powell were killed in a car crash in June His compositions often used overlapping melodies and other classical techniques. With the vibes as the lead instrument, the MJQ signaled a cool jazz move to more pastel tone colors.
The MJQ even imitated the concert etiquette of classical music by wearing tuxedos and playing in concert halls instead of jazz clubs. It begins and ends with a slow, arching, twentybar theme. In between, the band gently swings while Jackson and Lewis each take two choruses on a related AABC structure, where A is six bars long, B is eight bars, and C is twelve bars.
There is a double-time reminiscence of the theme between the two solos. The music picks up the moment Jackson begins to improvise, but Lewis continues to hint at the theme and a slower tempo in the background. The band continues to play with this tension: when the drums finally begin to dig in at C, the bass shifts to a boogie pattern, and the stress mounts until everyone gets into the groove at the beginning of the next chorus.
He brings the end of the solo down to a whisper to set up the repeat of the theme, and the piece ends on a somber tone. Frank Driggs Collection Horace Silver thought the keys to musical composition were melodic beauty, meaningful simplicity, and rhythm. After playing in a bebop style in the early s with Stan Getz, Silver began to simplify his style, adding blues and gospel elements to his playing. They would soon split; Silver would record with his own quintet, while Blakey retained the Jazz Messengers name and recorded the album Hard Bop, which gave this new movement a name.
The Concert by the Sea LP, from which this track is drawn, was one of the biggestselling jazz albums of the s and is still widely heard today. Although the sound quality of this music, recorded at a converted church near the California coastline in Carmel, is poor even by the standards of the period, the performance captures Garner at his finest and demonstrates the core virtues of this remarkable if somewhat idiosyncratic artist.
When he finally settles into the familiar melody, Garner adds to the surprise by dropping into a relaxed Denzil Best, undated. Sudden shifts of this sort were Frank Driggs Collection another of his trademarks—few jazz pianists have ever been better at shaping the dynamics of a trio performance—and we encounter similar changeups several times during this track. Perhaps his unconventional and self-taught techniques—Garner never learned to read music—are responsible for this neglect; his techniques are so personal and quirky that they may resist incorporation into more conventional jazz piano approaches.
The Chico Hamilton Quintet seemed to come from another world entirely. Buddy Collette plays the clarinet here, but he was just as likely to the play the flute or sax. Replacing the piano with guitar was less radical, but cello was a very unusual fifth instrument. The piece begins as a series of unusual, repeated vamps with the bass and drums functioning as extensions of this chamber ensemble.
Hamilton continues to use brushes instead of sticks, keeping the texture light as the band swings through solos. By , when he played with Gerry Mulligan and Chet Baker, however, he was looking for a new way to play. His delicate brushes and subtle approach became a hallmark of cool jazz. Despite their common geographic origins, they would go on to play in very different styles.
There were many West Coast players who played in a cool style Brubeck, Mulligan, Baker, and Hamilton, for example , but art is never uniform, and the exceptions, especially in jazz, are often important. Despite being part of the bebop revolution he worked Lucky Thompson, undated.
This bass solo is pure musical invention and might have been improvised on any instrument, such as a saxophone or guitar, the melodic lines being unrestricted by the physical limitations of the instrument. Pettiford was a huge influence on other bassists such as Ray Brown and Charles Mingus.
Following two sessions by this trio, Thompson relocated to Europe, working there in the late s and much of the s before leaving music altogether after his final return to the United States in the s. He died in obscurity in the Pacific Northwest. For the two years leading up to that point, the Brown-Roach Quintet had been at the forefront of modern jazz development, particularly since Rollins joined them in late Rollins had made his name as a teenage prodigy in Harlem and had joined Miles Davis at the age of nineteen, also recording with Bud Powell before the s were out.
He was, by , the preeminent bebop tenor saxophonist, capable of lightning speed and of endlessly fascinating melodic improvisation. In addition to his work with the Brown-Roach Quintet and occasional recordings with Davis, he had kept up a prolific output of discs under his own name.
The year marked a watershed for Rollins; his newfound freedom from a lengthy involvement with narcotics led to a remarkable burst of creativity. As well as fronting a Brown-Roach album, Sonny Rollins Plus Four, he issued his own celebrated albums, Tenor Madness which includes a joust with the up-and-coming John Coltrane and Saxophone Colossus, from which this track comes.
It was a folk song from the Virgin Islands, where my mother was born. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. Thomas islanders took their song from that Danish folk song, just as I adapted it for my jazz version. Ridgecrest Inn, Rochester, NY, COM In the s, the pianist and bandleader Sun Ra formed his pioneering, avant-garde big band, which became known as his Arkestra. An eccentric figure who dressed his musicians in a mixture of ancient Egyptian costumes and space-age clothes, Ra had grown up in Birmingham, Alabama, as Herman Blount.
After having moved to Chicago, he played in several swing bands, including a —47 season with Fletcher Henderson that profoundly affected him. Much of their work is documented in homemade recordings issued on the Saturn and Evidence labels. The best balance between intense creativity and good recording quality, however, is on studio recordings like this, or the remarkable album Jazz in Silhouette. The Arkestra collectively constructed a sound-world that both absorbed and rebelled against big-band orthodoxies.
The other soloists are, in order, Scales, Herndon, Ra, and Young. Ra went on to develop a highly individual approach to big-band writing, many of the roots of which are to be heard here. In particular he employed section voicings that combined brass and reeds together in unorthodox combinations, rather than contrasting their sounds as most arrangers did. He also was partial to multipart compositions such as this one, although in later life he was as likely to rework Disney themes or Henderson charts as to create entirely new themes.
The Grecians were not an ignorant people, they had both culture and wisdom. So he called all the guys [his rhythm section of guitarist John Collins, bassist Charlie Harris, and drummer Lee Young], and they started recording.
Five tunes later, they were done, and Cole and Gillette were so pleased with the results that they decided to go forward and use this format—Cole and his rhythm section with different guest stars—as the basis for an album. If Norman Granz had produced it, every track would be three times as long, and everybody would solo at length on every number. During the s and s, music publishers had a tradition of commissioning lyrics even for tunes that were essentially swing-band instrumentals.
In nearly all these cases, the lyrics were included on the published sheet music but virtually never sung. Normally done as a medium-up fast foxtrot, Fitzgerald and Armstrong do it here first slower and then faster than usual. Fitzgerald starts with the Razaf text almost at a ballad tempo, then she presides over an abrupt tempo change with a few lines of ingenious scatting. On trumpet, Armstrong then plays a jubilant chorus, as only he can, full of cool fire.
The two take it out singing together, initially playing with the words with Armstrong interjecting references to the longdeceased Chick Webb but gradually turning them into a longer, semi-scatted chorus. Getz was one of the first musicians with whom the word cool was associated: in his early years he had a dry-ice sound that set him apart from other bebop tenor saxophonists who were influenced by Lester Young.
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